In this tutorial, we are going to cover the differences between SOA (Service-Oriented Architecture) and Microservices Architecture. So, before going to differences, we will understand what is SOA, the advantages of SOA, the disadvantages of SOA, and the features of SOA, and then we will see what is Microservices architecture, the advantages of microservices, the disadvantages of microservices, and the features of microservices, and then Finally, we will see what are the differences between microservices architecture and SOA.
SOA (Service-Oriented Architecture) vs Microservices Architecture
What is SOA (Service-Oriented Architecture)?
SOA (Service-Oriented Architecture) is an architectural pattern. In this pattern, we create a collection of services, and these services communicate with each other to execute a function using the communication protocols. In this architecture, the services are loosely coupled. It means a service interacting with another service might not know the technical details of that service.
What are the advantages of SOA?
There are some advantages to using SOA:
- It is very easy to edit or update service.
- Reusability is the main advantage of SOA architecture. It means, we can reuse the service of an existing system.
- Scalability is very easy. So, we can easily enhance the performance, functionality of a service.
- In this architecture, services have the same directory structure. It means customers can access the service data from an equivalent directory every time.
- Services are usually small in size as compared to the full-fledge application.
- Each service is independent of other services. So, we can utilize one service in multiple applications at the same time.
What are the disadvantages of SOA?
There are some disadvantages to SOA:
- In SOA, we need a high bandwidth server. Because some web services need to send and receive messages and knowledge frequently. It means, they reach high requests per day. So, you need a high-speed server.
- It is very expensive in terms of development, human resources, and technology.
- When two services will communicate with each other then the response time will increase.
What are the features of SOA?
There are some features of SOA:
- Loose coupling is the main feature of SOA. It means, we can easily integrate a service with any system.
- Reusability of a service. It means we can reuse the service of an existing system. It will decrease development time.
- The standard messaging format usually XML based.
What is Microservices Architecture?
Microservice is an approach to create small services. Each service is running in its own space and can communicate via messaging. Each microservice works completely independently, but on the other hand, they also all rely on each other. It means that each microservice has its own database.
So, we can describe microservice in these below simple points:
- A microservice is responsible for a single piece of function.
- A microservice is individually deployable.
- A microservice is replaceable.
- Each service has its own database.
- A microservice consists of one or more processes.
What are the advantages of Microservices?
There are some advantages to using microservices:
- It is very easy to build and maintain.
- Smaller and faster deployment.
- Technology diversity. It means it is very easy to use different technologies.
- Independent deployment.
- Ease of understanding.
- It helps to divide an application into smaller parts.
What are the disadvantages of Microservices?
There are below some disadvantages of Microservices:
- Communication between services is very complex. In case if your application consists of hundreds or thousands of microservices, then the application becomes really complex. Especially when the services talk to each other.
- More resources needed to use multiple services.
- Debugging is harder.
- Testing is harder.
- Cascading of problems to other services.
- Handling the messages in the queue is very hard.
- Latency: every call to another service adds some latency and the user has to wait longer until the result comes.
- Separate deployment of each service.
What are the characteristics of Microservices?
There are some below characteristics of microservices:
- It is responsible for a single capability.
- It is individually deployable.
- It consists of one or more processes.
- It owns its own data store.
- It is replaceable.
- A small team can maintain a handful of Microservices.
SOA vs Microservices
There are some differences between SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) and Microservices Architecture
|Service-Oriented Architecture is a design paradigm for computer applications, where application components are exposed to the outer world for usage in the form of services.||Microservice is a part of service-oriented architecture. It is a specialized implementation of service-oriented architecture.|
|Business units are dependent on each other||All the business units are independent of each other.|
|Software size is bigger than conventional software.||The software size is small.|
|Service-oriented architecture applications are built to perform multiple business tasks.||Microservices architecture applications are built to perform a single business task.|
|It is more cost-effective.||It is less cost-effective.|
|Deployment is time-consuming.||Deployment is less time-consuming.|
|Monolithic in nature.||Full-stack in nature.|
|This architecture is better for large scale applications.||This architecture is better for small and web-based applications.|
|This architecture is less scalable.||This architecture is highly scalable.|
|In this architecture, each service can perform multiple tasks or functions.||In this architecture, each microservice is responsible for a single piece of function|
|This architecture support multiple messaging protocols.||This architecture uses lightweight like HTTP, REST…..|
|This architecture focus on maximizing the reusability of service.||It focused on decoupling.|
|A systematic change requires modifying the monolith.||A systematic change is to create a new service.|
|In this architecture, communication uses the Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)||In this architecture, communication uses a simple messaging system.|
|In this architecture, services share a database.||In this architecture, each microservice can have an independent database.|
As you know, we have explained everything about microservices architecture and Service-Oriented Architecture. So, we cannot simply say that one architecture is better than the other one. It totally depends on the purpose of the application we are building. So, according to the above explanation, we can say that service-oriented architecture is a better option for complex or larger enterprise applications that require integration with many other applications. And on the other hand, Microservices architecture is a better option for smaller applications.
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